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Horseshoe Kidney
The two kidneys are connected across the midline by an isthmus

Most common type of renal fusion anomaly

The isthmus may contain parenchymal tissue with its own blood supply or consist of fibrous tissue


  • UPJ obstruction, 30%
  • Ureteral duplication, 10%
  • Genital anomalies
  • Other anomalies: anorectal, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal


  • Obstruction, infection, calculus formation
  • Increased risk of renal malignancies, especially Wilms’ tumor
  • Increased risk of traumatic injury

Radiographic Features:

  • Abnormal axis of each kidney with lower pole more medial than upper calyx
  • Bilateral malrotation of renal pelises in anterior position
  • Isthmus lies anterior to aorta and IVC but behind IMA

Other Images of Horseshoe Kidney

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These signals are relayed buying clomid online safe which then is by a number of such as medial preoptic and paraventricular nulcei.